Tuesday, 18 July 2017
We all know that a diesel generator is used as a source of backup when supply of power is not constant. They have assumed great importance and have almost become a necessity for households and companies in areas where there is a shortage of electrical supply. Given the promising nature of a diesel generator, we all have at some point used it or at least have known its merits. But have we ever tried to understand what are the various parts that power the diesel generator and help it function?
Let us look at some of the main components of a diesel generator and their functions:
1. Engine – The heart of the system
The function of the engine is to create the mechanical energy that the diesel generator converts into electricity. The design of the engine is aimed at generating a maximum supply of electrical current by running on diesel or other alternate fuels.
2. A comprehensive fuel system
Generators that run on diesel or any other fuel, have a fuel system that stores and pumps it to the engine. The tank stores a good amount of fuel to power the generator for several hours at a stretch. A fuel pipe in the system connects the tank to the engine while a return pipe connects the engine to the fuel tank for the return of fuel. A fuel pump moves fuel from the tank through fuel pipe and to the engine. There is a fuel filter which filters out debris from the fuel, if any before delivering it to the engine. A fuel injector atomizes and injects the fuel directly into the combustion chamber of the engine.
The alternator in a diesel generator converts mechanical energy produced by the engine into electrical current. It comprises of the stator and the rotor (or armature). The stator is stationary and contains a set of coils that conduct electricity. The rotor moves to create a constantly rotating electromagnetic field around the stator.
4. Voltage Regulator
The alternator may generate electrical voltage but the level of voltage needs to be regulated that is suitable for practical use. Voltage regulator is an electrical regulator that maintains a constant level of voltage.
5. Impeccable cooling and exhaust systems
The temperature of a diesel generator must be regulated to prevent overheating while being used. Generators can use a fan, coolant or both to control the temperature of the generator at work. The internal combustion engines are usually cooled by passing engine coolant through the engine block. The generator also produces exhaust as the combustion chamber converts fuel. There are exhaust systems that dispel harmful gases emitted.
6. Lubrication system
A diesel generator comprises of various moving parts. These parts need to be oiled for their smooth functioning. The lubrication system ensures that the parts are well oiled and functioning at their best.
7. Acoustic Enclosure
Being a mechanical product with many moving parts, a diesel engine makes lot of noise during its operation. In order to control the noise emission, the engine and alternator assembly is housed in a soundproof canopy having sound absorbent material from inside. As per Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), the maximum noise emission from a generator should not exceed 75 dBA from 1 m distance from the canopy.
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